How To Grow Marigold Flowers
The Asteraceae family includes the genus Marigold, which is endemic to the Mediterranean, Near East Asia, and Western Europe. Marigolds are herbaceous plants. The genus derives its name from the Latin word calendar, which means the first day of the month. The genus includes approximately 20 species of annuals and perennials. Some of these, such as the medicinal marigold and their decorative qualities, are highly therapeutic and are mentioned in the works of Dioscorides, the ancient Greek philosopher, and physician of the first century AD. Because of its qualities, the marigold was incredibly popular in Europe.
Marigold heals wounds, gets rid of warts and calluses, cures women's illnesses and stomach diseases, and slows down the growth of cancerous tumors. The marigold is native to Southern Europe, where it has been known since ancient times (since the 12th century) for its medicinal properties and came to our land as an ornamental plant that adorns gardens with yellow flowers. In the garden, the marigold blooms all summer until September and drives pests away from cabbage and strawberries with its aromatic scent.
Growing Marigold From Seed
It is easiest to sow the seeds outdoors in April or under the winter in October. In spring, the time for sowing is when the soil has sufficiently warmed and dried after the snow has melted: Firmly grip a handful of garden soil in your hands and then throw the clump onto the ground from approx. one meter high and if it breaks up easily, it is time to sow calendula. A couple of weeks before planting, turn the soil on the plot with 3-4 kg of humus per m² and add 20 grams of superphosphate, potassium chloride, and 30 grams of urea per unit area.
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Marigold seeds are sown into the soil at a depth of 1-2 cm and spaced 25-30 cm apart, and the distance between the rows is about 60-70 cm if you are growing marigolds for their decorative qualities, but if you need marigold as a medicine, the spacing between the rows can be less – 30-40 cm. In this case, you can reduce the seed spacing in the row to 7-10 cm. In 2-3 weeks after the sprouts have emerged (and if planted correctly, the seeds will have started to germinate in a week), the sources should be pruned so that the seedlings are spaced at 25-35 cm intervals. The Marigold blooms around 10 weeks from when the seeds were sown outdoors.
To ensure that they bloom early, they should be grown as seedlings. Low-growing marigold varieties should also be grown as seedlings. The seeds are sown in late March or early April in a standard container or separate containers with potting soil to a shallow depth of no more than 2 cm. Containers with seeds covered with plastic film and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ºC in a bright place but protected from direct sun.
When the seedlings emerge (usually after 6-8 days), remove the foil and reduce the temperature to 14-15ºC. At this stage, water the soil and fertilize the seedlings with a weak solution of complex fertilizer once every ten or two weeks. When the seedlings have two true leaves, the seedlings are either picked at a distance of 5 cm between the specimens or planted in separate cups.
When to Plant
When the seedlings have around 5 to 6 true leaves, the marigold flower is planted outdoors, usually in mid-May. Although it is a cold-resistant plant and can withstand spring frosts at night, it is still necessary to harden it before planting. To do this, place the boxes or containers on a balcony or covered patio for a short time every day for a week.
The growing area should be sunny, and the soil should be well-drained, moist, and nutritious. Experienced gardeners plant marigolds in between beds of other garden and vegetable crops to protect them from mites, butterflies, and their larvae. However, the roots of marigold release substances into the soil, which can inhibit the growth of nearby radishes or basil.
Planting Marigold in the ground follows the same pattern as sowing: the distance between specimens in a row is 25-30 cm for ornamental species and 7-10 for medicinal ones, and the row spacing for decorative forms is 60-70 cm wide and 30-40 cm for medicinal ones. Marigold flowering begins 40-50 days after sowing the seeds in a seedling.
Care of Marigolds in the Garden
The cultivation and care of marigolds require both special conditions and little effort. The usual things: Watering in dry weather, loosening the soil, weeding, and monthly cultivation with multi-mineral fertilizer. One thing is a little tricky if you want marigolds to flower lavishly for a long time: As soon as the lingual flowers in the baskets are horizontal, swipe off all the open flowers. This measure encourages the formation of so many buds that the lush blooms will last until late autumn.
How and When to Harvest Seeds
Pick marigold seeds when they are almost fully ripe. In order not to be too late, the fading inflorescence is covered with a gauze bag, and the mature seeds are dispersed. The problem is that marigold seeds are not over-ripened, so it is important to complete the ripening stage. Otherwise, you might end up with a lot of self-sowing.
- Bonanza Marigold
A bushy dwarf cultivar from the family of French marigolds is called Bonanza. After the springtime frost has melted, they are grown from seeds. They can be grown in containers on a patio or porch and in outdoor garden beds.
Their flowers are rust-red with golden margins. They begin to bloom in the late spring and continue to do so through the summer and into the fall. They enjoy receiving full sun. They may grow in various soil types, but loamy, sandy, or clayey soil that is moist but well-draining is where they thrive.
- Little Hero Marigold
The small French marigold variety known as "Little Hero" barely reaches a height of about eight inches. This type can survive in hot, humid weather. Two-inch double-layered blooms with various colors, including gold, flame, red, yellow, and orange, make them distinctive.
- Bounty Marigold
Bounty marigold is a French marigold cultivar that grows to around 10 to 12 inches. Even at full maturity, this dwarf cultivar remains relatively tiny. In the sweltering summer humidity, this plant thrives. Only the tops of the plants yield flowers. The two-inch broad flowers have orange, flaming, and gold coloring.
- Hero Orange Marigold
French Marigold Hero Orange is another name for Hero Orange. It is a type of dwarf French marigold. The plant matures at the height of around 25 cm. The double-layered orange blossom, which may grow up to 6 cm wide in full bloom, makes this plant unique. That is a marigold type that is on the larger side.
Summer and fall are the flowering seasons for this shrub. It thrives in direct sunlight and prefers moist, well-draining soil. Numerous soil types, including sandy, clayey, and loamy soil, are well adapted to it.
- Queen Sophia Marigold
Another dwarf variant of the French marigold is Queen Sophia. Since this plant is deciduous and loses its leaves on a seasonal basis, you must prune it back after the flowering period. This marigold cultivar has semi-double flowers that resemble carnations. It features flowers with petals that are reddish-orange with yellow margins.
- Safari Scarlet Marigold
Another dwarf French marigold is the Safari Scarlet. It features semi-double flowers with yellow tips and an exquisite rich mahogany-orange color. After the flowering season, these plants must be pruned back because they also shed occasionally.
- Safari Tangerine Marigold
The French marigold family includes the dwarf variation known as the Safari Tangerine. Its aromatic foliage and bright tangerine orange blossoms, which resemble carnations, set it apart from other plants. In the spring, summer, and fall, they bloom. They thrive in whole light and moist, well-draining soil. To extend flowering, you must deadhead the plant periodically.
- Tiger-Eyes Marigold
Another dwarf variant of the French marigold is Tagetes patula, "Tiger Eyes." It is distinguished by double-layered flowers with an inner layer resembling an anemone. The inner anemone layer is deep yellow, and the outside flower or layer is mahogany red. From late spring through early October, this plant blooms.
- Yellow Jacket Marigold
The dwarf French marigold cultivar Tagetes patula 'Yellow Jacket' is compact and bushy. From spring until October, it has a protracted flowering period. They are distinguished by their dense, double-crested, bright yellow flowers and grey-green, intensely scented foliage. You can grow marigolds indoors in pots or containers if spiders terrify you because they are a plant that repels them.
- Safari Mixture Marigold
The Safari Blend The family of French marigolds includes the flowering plant known as the marigold, or Tagetes patula, which has a potent scent. Semi-double flowers that resemble carnations are its defining feature. These plants produce flowers that are mahogany-red, orange, and yellow. I adore these marigold varieties since you
can choose from various colors, and they all require the same upkeep, making your flower garden much simpler to manage.
Marigold was first cultivated as a medicinal plant. It has long been valued for its wound-healing, anti-inflammatory properties. Since the 16th century, it has been cultivated as a garden crop. It grows into a broad
herbaceous shrub with thick stems covered in tough hairs. The leaves are also pubescent and have an elongated, oval shape.
Marigold is susceptible to fungal diseases such as black spots and powdery mildew. In the fight against infections and pests must be taken into account that if Marigold grows in vegetable beds or will be used for medicinal purposes, you should choose safe means and preparations to carry out prevention.
Marigold is grown as an annual crop. It is propagated by seeds only. Seeds can be purchased or harvested from your plants. Gather in dry weather in late August or early September. Choose the best bushes in advance and collect the wilted flowers with ripe seeds. Planting material is dried in the sun for 2-3 days, turning occasionally.
Marigold seeds have a fancy shape, resembling giant marigolds. The finished seeds have a dark to light brown color. Sources with a greenish tint are rejected because they are unlikely to come out. Seeds can be used for 3-5 years. Seeds can be stored in tissue or paper bags and protected from dampness.
How to plant marigolds in seedlings?
Sprouts. When planting marigold seedlings, sow the seeds in a container with soil to a depth of 2 cm and cover them with foil. Remove the cling film daily for the next week in order to air it out, water the marigolds and keep them in a warm (18-20 °C), light place.
Where to plant marigolds?
Choose a sunny spot on your plot. Marigold is very undemanding and is undemanding in soil quality. You can do without mineral fertilizer. Every square meter of bed can be fertilized with 3-4 kg of compost, the soil is turned over to the spade bayonet, and a rake smoothes the surface.
When to plant marigolds?
It is best to sow the seeds at home in the second half of March and April. The time varies from region to region: In the South, you can plant in the middle of March (open field planting around the end of April).