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Orange Flower

Bee Pollinating FlowerOrange Flowers are the blossoms of the citrus fruits. Besides in general usage, the flowers which are orange in color are also reffered to as orange flowers. But the real Orange flowers are white and are very fragrant. Orange flower is also popular for its flower and fragrances.

Kingdom
Plantae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Class
Magnoliopsida
Subclass
Rosidae
Order
Sapindales
Family
Rutaceae
Genus
Citrus
Species
C. sinensis

Facts about Orange Flowers

  • The outstanding feature of orange flowers and flowers of related citrus species is their pleasant fragrance.
  • Orange flowers usually open in one great flush of bloom in the spring and give rise to orange fruits the following autumn or winter. It is very interesting that the previous year's oranges often are still on the trees when the new flowers are blooming.
  • Orange flowers are mostly hermaphrodite, releasing pollen when the stigma is receptive.
  • Orange flowers are arranged in clusters of 1-6.
  • The orange flower, is traditionally associated with good fortune, and was popular in bridal bouquets and headwreaths for weddings for some time.
  • The pollenless flowers of the Citrus are well known for their ability to set parthenocarpic fruit.
  • Citrus generally yields nectar copiously. Because of the large amount and superior quality of honey that citrus flowers produce, many beekeepers place their colonies in or near most groves.
  • Orange flowers yield an essential oil which is widely used in perfumery and in Aromatherapy.
  • Orange flowers have specific flower fragrances.
The orange flower (Citrus sinensis) was adopted as Florida's state flower on May 5, 1909.

The Orange trees are small trees, growing 10 m tall, with thorny shoots and evergreen leaves 4-10 cm long. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata). Oranges originated in southeast Asia, in either India or modern day Pakistan, Vietnam or southern China. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. There are about 16 species in the genus, Citrus.

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Orange Flower Oil

  • Hundreds of compounds have been identified in these oils. Orange flower oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and by supercritical fluid carbondioxide extraction of the concretes from orange flowers.
  • Orange Flower Oil as obtained from pomatum, slightly modified with other extracts, can be employed to make 'Sweet Pea' and 'Magnolia' perfumes, the natural odours of which it slightly resembles.
  • The flowers yield by distillation an essential oil known as 'Neroli', which forms one of the chief constituents of Eau-de-Cologne.
The extract of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) has been used in dietary supplements as an aid to fat loss and as an appetite suppressant.

Propagation

  • Propagation of citrus trees can be done by either budding or grafting.
  • Bud cuttings of orange cultivars are grafted onto one or two-year old seedlings of the same or a related species.
  • In bud-grafting, a small patch of bark containing a bud is removed from the scion (donor plant) and inserted beneath the bark of the receiving plant (rootstock).
  • The principal root stocks in use are sour orange (C. aurantium), for areas with good quality soils; 'Rough' lemon or 'Volkamer' lemon (C. limon), used for warm areas with sandy soils; and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), used in colder areas.
Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by Florida, USA.

Planting Steps

  • The first step is to wash off about an inch or so of the potting material all around the root ball to allow the roots immediate contact with the surrounding soil. If the tree is severely potbound, it may be necessary to use a knife to make several cuts through the base of the ball to stimulate root growth.
  • The second step is to clear an area of bare soil in a minimum three foot diameter around the planting hole to allow for watering and to prevent any vegetation from competing with the young tree.
  • Next, dig a planting hole to exactly the same height as the root ball. This is critical. Never plant a citrus too deep as it is extremely susceptible to foot rot, particularly in the area around the graft.
  • Place the tree in the center of the hole, backfill about halfway up the root ball and then water. After watering, fill the hole with soil and tamp lightly. Then add about another inch of soil on top of the root ball to seal it with the surrounding soil in which the tree will grow and prevent the root ball from drying.
  • Finally, build a raised watering ring of soil, about six inches high, to surround the planting hole. Then fill the ring with water and allow it soak in. Check to see if the sinking water exposes any of the roots in the root ball. If it has, cover with a little more soil.

Plant Care

  • Water the entire root area deeply about once a week.
  • Prune any time of the year. When the trees are young, prune overly vigorous growth.
  • Prune mature trees to remove dead, broken, and diseased branches. Give mature trees 1 to 1-1/2 pounds of nitrogen a year.
  • Apply in four portions throughout the year, or just once six to eight weeks before bloom.
  • Citrus trees are susceptible to a number of different disease and insect pests, depending on region.

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